Soap or alcohol-based products? The effect of hand hygiene on skin characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2022 Nov 21. doi: 10.1111/jocd.15523. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Different strategies for hand skin hygiene have been used to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, frequent hand sanitization has been associated with skin damage. The present study aimed to evaluate hand hygiene habits during the COVID-19 pandemic and the effect of the repetitive use of soap or alcohol-based products on skin characteristics.

Methods: We conducted a survey regards hand hygiene habits acquired during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, we performed cutometry in a cohort of individuals who cleansed their volar forearms every 30 min, during 4 h, using soap or alcohol-based products.

Results: We received 138 responses from people with medium-high educational level who reported a 2.5-time increase in the frequency of hand cleansing (p < 0.0001) that resulted in skin damage. An in vivo analysis of skin moisture and elasticity was also performed among 19 health workers and students. In general, skin moisture decreased with every cleansing, mainly after 2 h of washing with soap (p < 0.01), while skin elasticity only reduced after 4 h of treatment (p < 0.05). Alcohol-based solution or alcohol-based gel (70% ethanol, both) did not affect skin moisture or elasticity during testing.

Conclusion: It is known that the excessive use of soap or alcohol-based products causes dermatological issues. The present study demonstrates that non-medicated soap significantly affects skin moisture and elasticity, probably because the soap removes the hydrolipidic protective barrier, favoring transepidermal water loss, where the lack of the appropriate stratum corneum hydration also affects skin elasticity, mainly associated with changes in epidermal structure.

Keywords: hand sanitization; health workers; skin elasticity; skin irritation; skin moisture.