Retinoblastoma: A review of clinical profile at a regional cancer center in Northwest India

J Cancer Res Ther. 2022 Oct-Dec;18(6):1623-1628. doi: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1263_20.


Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. The present study was undertaken to overcome the scarcity of data regarding the epidemiology, demographic and clinical profile, and nature of the first health-care professional consulted.

Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records was performed for all cases of retinoblastoma who presented to the department of ophthalmology and oncology between 2010 and 2017. A total of 54 cases were reviewed.

Results: Unilateral disease was seen in 85.2% while 14.8% presented with bilateral disease with a median age of 3 years and 2 years, respectively, at diagnosis. The male: female ratio was 2:1. The most common presenting symptom was leukocoria which was noticed in 42 patients (77.7%), followed by red eye (33.3%) and proptosis (20.3%). The most common stage of presentation was Stage I (44.4%), followed by Stage IV (20.4%), Stage III (9.3%), and Stage II (5.6%). The median time to diagnosis was 8.7 months (range, 0.5-98.7 months), and the median time to treatment was 37.4 days (range, 0-645 days). Majority of the patients were referred by local ophthalmologists (48%), followed by general practitioners (20%), nurses (19%), and quacks (13%). Enucleation was the most preferred treatment modality (48.1%), followed by chemotherapy (33.3%), radiotherapy (13%), photocoagulation (3.7%), and exenteration (1.9%). The overall remission rate was 79.6%, while 12.3% had relapse and 7.4% died.

Conclusion: The study showed a dire need for timely detection and treatment of retinoblastoma which is possible with improved awareness and better accessibility to health-care facilities. It also revealed a decrease in histopathological risk factors with chemoreduction.

Keywords: Enucleation; leukocoria; ocular malignancy; retinoblastoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary*
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Retinoblastoma* / diagnosis
  • Retinoblastoma* / epidemiology
  • Retinoblastoma* / therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Testicular Neoplasms*