Pitching Biomechanics Normative Values and Kinetic Differences by Competition Level

J Surg Orthop Adv. 2022 Fall;31(3):177-180.


Pitching kinematic and kinetic assessments require normative values to make valuable comparisons to athletic peers. The purpose of this research note was to report normative values of pitching kinematics and kinetics and to compare kinetics by competition level. A retrospective review was performed on three-dimensional baseball pitching biomechanical evaluations. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated. Pitchers were portioned into competition level groups. Kinetic group differences were assessed through analyses of variance with significance level p < 0.05. One-hundred and twenty pitchers were included. Elbow varus torque was greater in higher competition levels. Shoulder distraction force was greater in higher competition levels. All levels demonstrated similar maximum vertical push off ground reaction force (p = 0.960) and maximum vertical landing ground reaction force (p = 0.135). Higher competition level pitchers demonstrated improved pitching kinematic efficiency compared to lower-level pitchers. However, college and professional pitchers exhibited greater arm stress, which may be attributed to increased pitching velocity. These pitching biomechanical data can be used as normative comparisons when examining pitching mechanics at multiple competition levels throughout an athlete's baseball career. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 31(3):177-180, 2022).

MeSH terms

  • Baseball*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Elbow Joint*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Shoulder Joint*