BOREAS: a global, phase III study of the MDM2 inhibitor navtemadlin (KRT-232) in relapsed/refractory myelofibrosis

Future Oncol. 2022 Nov 23. doi: 10.2217/fon-2022-0901. Online ahead of print.


Patients with myelofibrosis (MF) who discontinue ruxolitinib due to progression/resistance have poor prognoses. JAK inhibitors control symptoms and reduce spleen volumes with limited impact on underlying disease pathophysiology. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2), a negative regulator of p53, is overexpressed in circulating malignant CD34+ MF cells. The oral MDM2 inhibitor navtemadlin (KRT-232) restores p53 activity to drive apoptosis of wild-type TP53 tumor cells by inducing expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Navtemadlin demonstrated promising clinical and disease-modifying activity and acceptable safety in a phase II study in patients with relapsed/refractory MF. The randomized phase III BOREAS study compares the efficacy and safety of navtemadlin to best available therapy in patients with MF that is relapsed/refractory to JAK inhibitor treatment.

Keywords: MDM2 inhibitor; myelofibrosis; myeloproliferative neoplasms; navtemadlin; p53.

Plain language summary

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a rare blood cancer that disrupts normal blood cell production and causes fibrosis (tissue thickening/scarring) in bone marrow, reduced red blood cells in the circulation, and an enlarged spleen. Although currently approved treatments can help relieve some effects, they have limited impact on the underlying cause of the disease. Navtemadlin is a new therapy that inhibits a protein frequently overexpressed in cancer cells found in MF patients called murine double minute 2 (MDM2), which regulates a common tumor suppressor protein called p53. By inhibiting MDM2, navtemadlin restores normal p53 function and its ability to kill MF cancer cells. BOREAS is a large clinical study of navtemadlin for MF patients whose disease is not responding to current therapy.

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