Introduction: The management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) represents a major challenge in the field of infectious diseases. It is associated with a high rate of nosocomial infections with a mortality rate that reaches approximately 50%, even when using an effective antimicrobial therapy. Therefore, combined actions addressing infection control and antibiotic stewardship are required to delay the emergence of resistance. Since new antimicrobial agents targeting MDR-GNB bacteria have been produced during the last years and are now available for physicians to treat MDR, it is fundamental to choose appropriate antimicrobial therapy for K. pneumoniae infection.
Areas covered: The PubMed database was searched to review the most significant recent literature on the topic, including data from articles coming from endemic areas and from the current European and American Guidelines.
Expert opinion: We explore the most effective strategies for prevention of MDR-KP spread and the currently available treatment options, focusing on comparing old strategies and new compounds. We reviewed data concerning newly developed drugs that could play an important role in the future; we also propose a treatment algorithm that could be useful for physicians in daily clinical practice.
Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; infection control; multi-drug-resistant-Klebsiella pneumoniae; novel antimicrobials.