Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Predictive Factors and Long-Term Step-Down Efficacy

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2023 Feb 1;76(2):191-198. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003660. Epub 2022 Nov 23.


Objectives: To assess the short- and long-term efficacy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in real-world practice with a step-down strategy, and to evaluate factors predictive of PPI responsiveness.

Methods: We collected data regarding the efficacy of PPIs during this cross-sectional analysis of the prospective nationwide RENESE registry. Children with EoE treated with PPI monotherapy were included. Histological remission was defined as a peak eosinophilic count of <15 eosinophils (eos)/high-power field (hpf). Factors associated with PPI responsiveness were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: After induction therapy, histological and clinico-histological remission were observed in 51.4% (n = 346) and 46.5% of children, respectively. Normal endoscopic appearance of the esophagus was associated with a higher possibility [odds ratio (OR), 9.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.10-40.16], and fibrostenotic phenotype was associated with a lower possibility (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.74) of histological remission. Long-term therapy with a step-down strategy effectively maintained histological remission in 68.5% and 85.3% of children at 7 months (n = 108) and 16 months (n = 34), respectively. Complete initial histological remission (≤5 eos/hpf) was associated with a higher possibility of sustained histological remission (OR, 5.08; 95% CI, 1.75-14.68). Adverse events were infrequent and mild.

Conclusions: We confirmed the efficacy of PPIs for a large cohort of children with EoE with sustained histological remission using a step-down strategy. Children with fibrostenotic phenotypes are less likely to respond to induction therapy. Furthermore, patients with complete initial histological remission are more likely to experience long-term histological remission.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Prospective Studies
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use


  • Proton Pump Inhibitors

Supplementary concepts

  • Eosinophilic enteropathy