Associations between COVID-19 vaccine uptake, race/ethnicity, and political party affiliation

J Behav Med. 2023 Jun;46(3):525-531. doi: 10.1007/s10865-022-00379-2. Epub 2022 Nov 22.


Despite widespread availability of vaccines, COVID-19 is a leading cause of death in the United States (US), and sociodemographic disparities in vaccine uptake remain. Race/ethnicity, partisanship, and perception of peer vaccination status are strong predictors of vaccine uptake, but research is limited among some racial/ethnic groups with small populations. The current study used an online survey to examine the relationship between these factors among a diverse sample of US adults (n = 1,674), with oversampling of racial and ethnic minorities. Respondents provided sociodemographic information and answered questions regarding COVID-19 vaccination status, political affiliation, perception of peers' vaccination status, COVID-19 death exposure, and previous COVID-19 infection. Respondents who identified as Asian American had higher odds of being vaccinated, whereas those who identified as Black/African American or American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) had lower odds. Respondents who identified as Independent/Other or Republican had lower vaccination odds. Respondents who perceived anything less than nearly all of their peers were vaccinated had lower vaccination odds. Further, lack of a primary care provider, younger age, and lower educational attainment were associated with lower vaccination odds. Findings may help to determine where additional work is needed to improve vaccine uptake in the US. Results indicate the need for intentional and tailored vaccination programs in Black/African American and AIAN communities; the need to understand how media and political actors develop vaccination messaging and impact vaccine uptake; and the need for additional research on how people estimate, understand, and form decisions around peer vaccination rates.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; Peer vaccination status; Political affiliation; Racial and ethnic minorities; Vaccine uptake.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • COVID-19 Vaccines* / administration & dosage
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Ethnicity
  • Humans
  • Politics*
  • United States
  • Vaccination* / statistics & numerical data


  • COVID-19 Vaccines