Drug-drug interaction of the antiviral sofosbuvir and the antiarrhythmics amiodarone has been reported to cause fatal heartbeat slowing. Sofosbuvir and its analog, MNI-1, were reported to potentiate the inhibition of cardiomyocyte calcium handling by amiodarone, which functions as a multi-channel antagonist, and implicate its inhibitory effect on L-type Cav channels, but the molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Here we present systematic cryo-EM structural analysis of Cav1.1 and Cav1.3 treated with amiodarone or sofosbuvir alone, or sofosbuvir/MNI-1 combined with amiodarone. Whereas amiodarone alone occupies the dihydropyridine binding site, sofosbuvir is not found in the channel when applied on its own. In the presence of amiodarone, sofosbuvir/MNI-1 is anchored in the central cavity of the pore domain through specific interaction with amiodarone and directly obstructs the ion permeation path. Our study reveals the molecular basis for the physical, pharmacodynamic interaction of two drugs on the scaffold of Cav channels.
Keywords: Ca(v)1.1; Ca(v)1.3; L-type Ca(v) channels; amiodarone; cryo-EM; drug safety; drug-drug interactions; severe bradycardia; sofosbuvir; voltage-gated calcium channels.
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