Rationale and design for the myocardial ischemia and transfusion (MINT) randomized clinical trial

Am Heart J. 2023 Mar:257:120-129. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2022.11.015. Epub 2022 Nov 20.


Background: Accumulating evidence from clinical trials suggests that a lower (restrictive) hemoglobin threshold (<8 g/dL) for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, compared with a higher (liberal) threshold (≥10 g/dL) is safe. However, in anemic patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), maintaining a higher hemoglobin level may increase oxygen delivery to vulnerable myocardium resulting in improved clinical outcomes. Conversely, RBC transfusion may result in increased blood viscosity, vascular inflammation, and reduction in available nitric oxide resulting in worse clinical outcomes. We hypothesize that a liberal transfusion strategy would improve clinical outcomes as compared to a more restrictive strategy.

Methods: We will enroll 3500 patients with acute MI (type 1, 2, 4b or 4c) as defined by the Third Universal Definition of MI and a hemoglobin <10 g/dL at 144 centers in the United States, Canada, France, Brazil, New Zealand, and Australia. We randomly assign trial participants to a liberal or restrictive transfusion strategy. Participants assigned to the liberal strategy receive transfusion of RBCs sufficient to raise their hemoglobin to at least 10 g/dL. Participants assigned to the restrictive strategy are permitted to receive transfusion of RBCs if the hemoglobin falls below 8 g/dL or for persistent angina despite medical therapy. We will contact each participant at 30 days to assess clinical outcomes and at 180 days to ascertain vital status. The primary end point is a composite of all-cause death or recurrent MI through 30 days following randomization. Secondary end points include all-cause mortality at 30 days, recurrent adjudicated MI, and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, nonfatal recurrent MI, ischemia driven unscheduled coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting), or readmission to the hospital for ischemic cardiac diagnosis within 30 days. The trial will assess multiple tertiary end points.

Conclusions: The MINT trial will inform RBC transfusion practice in patients with acute MI.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02981407.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anemia* / etiology
  • Anemia* / therapy
  • Blood Transfusion
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / complications
  • Hemoglobins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Ischemia / etiology
  • Myocardial Infarction* / complications
  • Myocardial Infarction* / therapy
  • Myocardial Ischemia* / complications
  • Myocardial Ischemia* / therapy
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Hemoglobins

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02981407