Association of COVID-19 with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sci Rep. 2022 Nov 23;12(1):20191. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-24185-7.


Emerging evidence suggests that coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) may lead to a wide range of post-acute sequelae outcomes, including new onset of diabetes. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes in survivors of COVID-19. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the World Health Organization Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease and clinical trial registries for studies reporting the association of COVID-19 and diabetes. Search dates were December 2019-October 16, 2022. Two investigators independently assessed studies for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We estimated the effect of COVID-19 on incident diabetes by random-effects meta-analyses using the generic inverse variance method. We identified 8 eligible studies consisting of 4,270,747 COVID-19 patients and 43,203,759 controls. Median age was 43 years (interquartile range, IQR 35-49), and 50% were female. COVID-19 was associated with a 66% higher risk of incident diabetes (risk ratio, 1.66; 95% CI 1.38; 2.00). The risk was not modified by age, sex, or study quality. The median risk of bias assessment was 7. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, COVID-19 was associated with higher risk for developing new onset diabetes among survivors. Active monitoring of glucose dysregulation after recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is warranted.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • SARS-CoV-2