Complications of patients with thalassemia major and intermedia in a selected Iranian population

Caspian J Intern Med. 2022 Fall;13(4):765-771. doi: 10.22088/cjim.13.4.756.


Background: Due to anemia in thalassemia major (TM) and thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients, bone changes occur, especially in the broad bones like jaw and skull, which are the main sites of hematopoiesis. Therefore, the dentist should be aware of the disease to prevent complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic findings of the jaw and teeth in TM and TI patients and to compare the two groups.

Methods: 50 TM patients and 50 TI patients in Amirkola Thalassemia Center, whose thalassemia were definitively diagnosed by a hematologist, were selected as the study group and the control group consisted of 50 healthy individuals. In patients` panoramic radiographs, dental anomalies (microdontia, root shortening etc.) and bone disorders (bone marrow hyperplasia, maxillary sinus invisibility etc.) were assessed. A p<0.05 was considered.

Results: Dental anomalies were (42.84%) in TI patients and (23.46%) in the control group, the difference was significant. Dental anomalies in TM patients were (38.76%) and in the control group (23.46%) and a significant difference was observed (p<0.001). Bone disorders were (47.94%) in TI patients and in the control group (32.64%). Bone disorders in TM patients were (44.88%) and in the control group was (32.64%) that showed a significant difference.

Conclusion: This study showed that in thalassemia patients, bone and dental disorders frequency were higher than healthy individuals. Bone disorders were also more common than dental anomalies. Dental and bone disorders were more common in TI.

Keywords: Panoramic radiography; Thalassemia intermedia; Thalassemia major.