Distinct genetic landscapes and their clinical implications in younger and older patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

Hematol Oncol. 2023 Aug;41(3):463-473. doi: 10.1002/hon.3109. Epub 2022 Nov 30.


Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse diseases that impose patients with an increased risk of leukemic transformation. While MDS is a disease of the elderly, the interplay between aging and molecular profiles is not fully understood, especially in the Asian population. Thus, we compared the genetic landscape between younger and older patients in a cohort of 698 patients with primary MDS to advance our understanding of the distinct pathogenesis and different survival impacts of gene mutations in MDS according to age. We found that the average mutation number was higher in the older patients than younger ones. The younger patients had more WT1 and CBL mutations, but less mutated ASXL1, DNMT3A, TET2, SF3B1, SRSF2, STAG2, and TP53 than the older patients. In multivariable survival analysis, RUNX1 mutations with higher variant allele frequency (VAF) and U2AF1 and TP53 mutations were independent poor prognostic indicators in the younger patients, whereas DNMT3A and IDH2 mutations with higher VAF and TP53 mutations conferred inferior outcomes in the older patients. In conclusion, we demonstrated the distinct genetic landscape between younger and older patients with MDS and suggested that mutations impact survival in an age-depended manner.

Keywords: age; genes; myelodysplastic syndrome; next-generation sequencing; prognosis.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes* / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Analysis