Toward a hypothesis-free understanding of how phosphorylation dynamically impacts protein turnover

Proteomics. 2022 Nov 24;e2100387. doi: 10.1002/pmic.202100387. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The turnover measurement of proteins and proteoforms has been largely facilitated by workflows coupling metabolic labeling with mass spectrometry (MS), including dynamic stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (dynamic SILAC) or pulsed SILAC (pSILAC). Very recent studies including ours have integrated themeasurement of post-translational modifications (PTMs) at the proteome level (i.e., phosphoproteomics) with pSILAC experiments in steady state systems, exploring the link between PTMs and turnover at the proteome-scale. An open question in the field is how to exactly interpret these complex datasets in a biological perspective. Here, we present a novel pSILAC phosphoproteomic dataset which was obtained during a dynamic process of cell starvation using data-independent acquisition MS (DIA-MS). To provide an unbiased "hypothesis-free" analysis framework, we developed a strategy to interrogate how phosphorylation dynamically impacts protein turnover across the time series data. With this strategy, we discovered a complex relationship between phosphorylation and protein turnover that was previously underexplored. Our results further revealed a link between phosphorylation stoichiometry with the turnover of phosphorylated peptidoforms. Moreover, our results suggested that phosphoproteomic turnover diversity cannot directly explain the abundance regulation of phosphorylation during cell starvation, underscoring the importance of future studies addressing PTM site-resolved protein turnover.

Keywords: DIA-MS; DeltaSILAC; clustering; data analysis; peptidoform; phosphorylation; protein turnover; pulse SILAC; time course.