Massive Hemorrhage Protocol: A Practical Approach to the Bleeding Trauma Patient

Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2023 Feb;41(1):51-69. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2022.09.010.


Damage-control resuscitation is the standard of care for the hemorrhaging trauma patient. This approach combines rapid hemostasis and early-ratio-based blood product administration. These patients often require initiation of a massive hemorrhage protocol to support the systematic and coordinated delivery of care during this critical phase of resuscitation. Emerging evidence supports that this includes more than blood product administration alone but rather a comprehensive suite of treatments. In this article, we review the existing evidence and provide a pragmatic framework, the 7 Ts of massive hemorrhage protocol, to guide the care of patients with life-threatening traumatic hemorrhage.

Keywords: Damage control resuscitation; Massive hemorrhage protocol; Resuscitation; Trauma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Hemorrhage* / diagnosis
  • Hemorrhage* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Resuscitation* / methods