Approaches and Barriers to Biomarker Discovery: The Example of Biomarkers of Renal Scarring in Pediatric Urology

Urol Clin North Am. 2023 Feb;50(1):1-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2022.09.005.


A noninvasive test that can longitudinally assess renal parenchymal status would be incredibly valuable for a wide range of conditions, including neurogenic bladder, renal transplantation, and upper and lower urinary tract anomalies. To address this need, enormous amounts of time, effort, and resources have been invested to identify biologic molecules that signal the pathologic processes of renal parenchymal defects. In this comprehensive narrative review, the authors summarize biomarkers that have previously been investigated while highlighting the key pitfalls and barriers that have impeded biomarker discovery and translation.

Keywords: Biomarker; Renal parenchymal defects; Renal scarring.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Biomedical Research*
  • Child
  • Cicatrix / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Urology*


  • Biomarkers