Comparison of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Prescribing in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cardiovascular Disease

Am J Cardiol. 2023 Feb 15:189:121-130. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.10.041. Epub 2022 Nov 22.


Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) reduce cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We sought to describe trends in prescribing for SGLT2is and GLP1-RAs in diverse care settings, including (1) the outpatient clinics of a midwestern integrated health system and (2) small- and medium-sized community-based primary care practices and health centers in 3 midwestern states. We included adults with T2DM and ≥1 outpatient clinic visit. The outcomes of interest were annual active prescription rates for SGLT2is and GLP1-RAs (separately). In the integrated health system, 22,672 patients met the case definition of T2DM. From 2013 to 2019, the overall prescription rate for SGLT2is increased from 1% to 15% (absolute difference [AD] 14%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13% to 15%, p <0.01). The GLP1-RA prescription rate was stable at 10% (AD 0%, 95% CI -1% to 1%, p = 0.9). In community-based primary care practices, 43,340 patients met the case definition of T2DM. From 2013 to 2017, the SGLT2i prescription rate increased from 3% to 7% (AD 4%, 95% CI 3% to 6%, p <0.01), whereas the GLP1-RA prescription rate was stable at 2% to 3% (AD 1%, 95% CI -1 to 1%, p = 0.40). In a fully adjusted regression model, non-Hispanic Black patients had lower odds of SGLT2i or GLP1-RA prescription (odds ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.89, p = 0.016). In conclusion, the increase in prescription rates was greater for SGLT2is than for GLP1-RAs in patients with T2DM in a large integrated medical center and community primary care practices. Overall, prescription rates for eligible patients were low, and racial disparities were observed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Drug Prescriptions
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor* / agonists
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors* / pharmacology
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors* / therapeutic use


  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors