Imaging strategies for monitoring the immune response

Chem Sci. 2022 Oct 7;13(44):12957-12970. doi: 10.1039/d2sc03446h. eCollection 2022 Nov 16.


Real-time monitoring of the immune response can be used to evaluate the immune status of the body and to distinguish immune responders and non-responders, so as to better guide immunotherapy. Through direct labelling of immune cells and imaging specific biomarkers of different cells, the activation status of immune cells and immunosuppressive status of tumor cells can be visualized. The immunotherapeutic regimen can then be adjusted accordingly in a timely manner to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy. In this review, various imaging methods, immune-related imaging probes, current challenges and opportunities are summarized and discussed.

Publication types

  • Review