Prevalence of A0 blood group and level of agreement for A0 blood-typing methods in pet pigs from Louisiana

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2022 Nov 25. doi: 10.1111/vec.13266. Online ahead of print.


Objectives: Pet pigs are a species of growing medical interest, and evidence-based practices for blood transfusions are needed. The objectives of this study were to quantify the prevalence of 3 blood group (Bg) phenotypes ("A" and "Aweak " resulting from EAAAA and EAAA0 , "0" from EAA00 , or "-" from EAA00 or SSS alleles) in pet pigs and compare results using a human blood-typing card (EldonCard), standard saline agglutination (SSA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: University veterinary teaching hospital.

Animals: Ninety-seven pet pigs from Louisiana.

Interventions: Blood was sampled from randomly selected pet pigs of various breeds, anticoagulated with EDTA, and typed using each investigated test according to the manufacturers' directions or standard laboratory technique. Samples for PCR analysis were stored at -80°C until analysis. Phenotypes were screened via EldonCard. Association between Bg and sex was investigated using chi-square test, with significance at P < 0.05. Kappa (κ) statistic was used to measure the level of agreement between the 3 tests.

Measurements and main results: Pot-bellied pigs represented the majority (84.5%) of this population, with 52 (53.6%) males and 45 (46.4%) females. Genotypic frequencies were 30%, 30%, and 40% for "EAAAA ," "EAAA0 ," and "EAA00 ," respectively. Based on EldonCard, 38 phenotypes were classified as "A," 5 as "Aweak ," and 54 as "0" or "-." Results were identical for Bg, with the 3 tested techniques in 90% (45/50) of samples. Agreement between EldonCard and PCR was almost perfect (49/50 [98%], κ = 0.959; P < 0.001). Agreement between SSA and PCR, and EldonCard and SSA was substantial (46/50 [92%], κ = 0.803, P < 0.001 and 93/97 [95.9%], κ = 0.764, P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: The most common blood type was "0" or "-" (55.7%), followed by "A" (39.2%) and "Aweak " (5.1%). There was strong agreement between EldonCard and PCR testing. EldonCard allowed for rapid and reliable phenotype identification ("A," "Aweak ," and "0" or "-") and represents a clinically applicable laboratory method for blood typing in pet pigs.

Keywords: A0 system; EldonCard; blood group typing; pet pig; pot-bellied pig; standard agglutination test.