Biomarkers in metabolic syndrome

Adv Clin Chem. 2022;111:101-156. doi: 10.1016/bs.acc.2022.07.003. Epub 2022 Sep 6.


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global health challenge characterized as a group of risk factors for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance are fundamental to MetS, the exact biochemical mechanisms underlying this disease state remain unclear. Numerous biomarkers, however, have been proposed to improve our understanding of its complex pathophysiology and facilitate diagnosis. This review examines these biomarkers and clarifies their potential roles in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prediction, progression, and severity of MetS and MetS-related disorders.

Keywords: Adipocytokine; Biomarkers; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Lipoprotein; Metabolic syndrome; Oxidative stress; Visceral adipose tissue.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Metabolic Diseases*
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / metabolism


  • Biomarkers