Modifying Orthobiological PRP Therapies Are Imperative for the Advancement of Treatment Outcomes in Musculoskeletal Pathologies

Biomedicines. 2022 Nov 15;10(11):2933. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10112933.


Autologous biological cellular preparations have materialized as a growing area of medical advancement in interventional (orthopedic) practices and surgical interventions to provide an optimal tissue healing environment, particularly in tissues where standard healing is disrupted and repair and ultimately restoration of function is at risk. These cellular therapies are often referred to as orthobiologics and are derived from patient's own tissues to prepare point of care platelet-rich plasma (PRP), bone marrow concentrate (BMC), and adipose tissue concentrate (ATC). Orthobiological preparations are biological materials comprised of a wide variety of cell populations, cytokines, growth factors, molecules, and signaling cells. They can modulate and influence many other resident cells after they have been administered in specific diseased microenvironments. Jointly, the various orthobiological cell preparations are proficient to counteract persistent inflammation, respond to catabolic reactions, and reinstate tissue homeostasis. Ultimately, precisely delivered orthobiologics with a proper dose and bioformulation will contribute to tissue repair. Progress has been made in understanding orthobiological technologies where the safety and relatively easy manipulation of orthobiological treatment tools has been demonstrated in clinical applications. Although more positive than negative patient outcome results have been registered in the literature, definitive and accepted standards to prepare specific cellular orthobiologics are still lacking. To promote significant and consistent clinical outcomes, we will present a review of methods for implementing dosing strategies, using bioformulations tailored to the pathoanatomic process of the tissue, and adopting variable preparation and injection volume policies. By optimizing the dose and specificity of orthobiologics, local cellular synergistic behavior will increase, potentially leading to better pain killing effects, effective immunomodulation, control of inflammation, and (neo) angiogenesis, ultimately contributing to functionally restored body movement patterns.

Keywords: angiogenesis; autologous orthobiologics; bioformulations; dosing; evolutionary medicine; immunomodulation; painkilling effects; platelet-rich plasma; platelets; platelet–leukocyte interactions.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.