Analysis of Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in COVID-19 Disease Highlighting the Susceptibility and the Severity towards the Infection

Diagnostics (Basel). 2022 Nov 16;12(11):2824. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics12112824.

Abstract

Many factors may influence the risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Exposure to the virus cannot explain the variety of an individual's responses to the virus and the high differences of effect that the virus may cause to some. While a person's preexisting condition and their immune defenses have been confirmed to play a major role in the disease progression, there is still much to learn about hosts' genetic makeup towards COVID-19 susceptibility and risk. The host genetic makeup may have direct influence on the grade of predisposition and outcomes of COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of relevant genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the peripheral blood level of IL6, vitamin D and arterial blood gas (ABG) markers (pH, oxygen-SpO2 and carbon dioxide-SpCO2) on two groups, COVID-19 (n = 41, study), and the healthy (n = 43, control). We analyzed cytokine and interleukin genes in charge of both pro-inflammatory and immune-modulating responses and those genes that are considered involved in the COVID-19 progression and complications. Thus, we selected major genes, such as IL1β, IL1RN (IL-1 β and α receptor) IL6, IL6R (IL-6 receptor), IL10, IFNγ (interferon gamma), TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha), ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme), SERPINA3 (Alpha-1-Antiproteinase, Antitrypsin member of Serpin 3 family), VDR (vitamin D receptor Tak1, Bsm1 and Fok1), and CRP (c-reactive protein). Though more research is needed, these findings may give a better representation of virus pleiotropic activity and its relation to the immune system.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; arterial blood gas (ABG); carbon dioxide (SpCO2); oxygen (SpO2).

Grant support

This research received no external funding.