The engineering applications and related researches of 3D printing fiber-reinforced geopolymers are becoming more and more extensive. However, compared with traditional mould-casted cement-based materials, the properties of 3D-printed fiber-reinforced geopolymers are significantly different, and their interlayer bonding and anisotropy effects are less studied, so in-depth analysis and summary are needed. Similar to common cement-based materials, the reinforcement fibers for geopolymers include not only traditional fibers, such as steel fibers and carbon fibers, but also synthetic polymer fibers and natural polymer fibers. These fibers have unique properties, most of which have good mechanical properties and bonding properties with geopolymers, as well as excellent crack resistance and enhancement. This paper summarizes and analyzes the effects of traditional fibers, polymer fibers, plant fibers and other reinforcement fibers on the properties of 3D-printed fiber-reinforced geopolymers, especially on the interlayer bonding and anisotropy. The influence of the flow and thixotropic properties of fiber-reinforced fresh geopolymer on the weak bond and anisotropy between layers is summarized and analyzed. At the same time, the influence of fibers on the compressive strength, flexural strength and interlayer binding strength of the hardened geopolymers is investigated. The effect of fibers on the anisotropy of 3D-printed geopolymers and the methods to improve the interlayer binding degree are summarized. The limitations of 3D printing fiber-reinforced geopolymers are pointed out and some suggestions for improvement are put forward. Finally, the research on 3D printing fiber-reinforced geopolymers is summarized. This paper provides a reference for further improving the interlayer bonding strength of 3D-printed fiber-reinforced geopolymers. At the same time, the anisotropy properties of 3D-printed fiber-reinforced geopolymers are used to provide a basis for engineering applications.
Keywords: 3D printing; anisotropy; fiber; geopolymer; interlayer bonding; mechanical property; workability.