The Chemical Signatures of Water Extract of Zingiber officinale Rosc

Molecules. 2022 Nov 13;27(22):7818. doi: 10.3390/molecules27227818.


Background: Ginger (Z. officinale Rosc.) is a common herb and is widely used as a diet-based or home therapy in traditional medicine worldwide. However, fresh ginger turns into dried ginger after kiln drying and shows a different treatment effect in clinical practice.

Objective: To characterize the changes of major bioactive constituents in dried ginger after the processing of fresh ginger.

Methods: A novel, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) method was established to characterize the changes in the bioactive constituents of dried ginger. The novel strategy was split into two steps: firstly, the MS selected the most intense precursor ions of tandem MS; then, target MS/MS acquisition with different collision energies (10, 20, and 40 eV) was used to characterize the compound's accurate MS/MS spectra and compare the MS/MS spectrum with the building MS reference library and reference standards.

Result: Fifty-three compounds, including diarylheptanoids, gingerols, gingerodiols, gingerdiones, and shogaol-related compounds, were identified based on summarized fragmentation patterns. Fifteen out of fifty-three compounds were diarylheptanoids, which was different from fresh ginger.

Conclusion: These identified compounds could be used to characterize the quality of dried ginger, pharmacologic studies should focus on diarylheptanoids explaining the different treatment effects between fresh ginger and dried ginger.

Keywords: chromatography; ginger; mass spectrometry; plant extracts.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Diarylheptanoids
  • Ginger* / chemistry
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Water


  • Water
  • Diarylheptanoids