Assessment of Micro-Hardness, Degree of Conversion, and Flexural Strength for Single-Shade Universal Resin Composites

Polymers (Basel). 2022 Nov 17;14(22):4987. doi: 10.3390/polym14224987.


Single-shade universal resin composites (SsURC) are preferred in clinical practice to reduce time for shade selection and obtain good esthetic results. In this study, the static mechanical properties of seven new SsURCs were investigated, their spectral analyzes were performed and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluations were presented. Charisma Diamond One/DO, Admira Fusion x-tra/AFX, Omnichroma/OC, OptiShade/OS, Essentia Universal/EU, Zenchroma/ZC, Vittra APS Unique/VU were used in a three-point bending test to determine flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (EM); Vickers micro-hardness (VHN) and hardness-ratio (HR) were performed with a micro-hardness tester from top/bottom after 24-h/15-days of storage in distilled water at 37 °C (±1 °C). The degree of conversion (DC) was assessed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of the resin matrix and filler content were assessed by SEM. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS V23 and the R program and the significance level was taken as p < 0.05. The main effect of the tested SsURCs was found to be statistically significant on FS, EM, VHN, and DC values (p < 0.001). Bis-GMA free SsURCs (AFX, DO, VU) showed better DC and HR except for OC. All seven tested SsURCs conform to the requirements of ISO standards for dental resin composites for all tested categories.

Keywords: FTIR; SEM; TCD-urethane monomer; color adjustment; elastic modulus; flexural strength; hardness-ratio; micro-hardness; ormocer; single-shade universal composite.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.