Utilization of industrial hemp by-product defatted seed flour: effect of its incorporation on the properties and quality characteristics of 'tsoureki', a rich-dough baked Greek product

J Sci Food Agric. 2022 Nov 26. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.12351. Online ahead of print.


Background: A rich-dough baked Greek product named 'tsoureki' was prepared using non-gluten hemp seed flour at ratios of 0:100, 10:90, 30:70, and 50:50. The effects of hemp flour addition on the properties of 'tsoureki', including physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, sorption phenomena), structural properties, textural properties, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and sensorial characteristics, as well as the macroscopic structure and morphological characteristics, were studied.

Results: Hemp flour addition affected dough rheology, showing tan δ values < 1, a decrease in both G' and G″ values, while both flow behavior and consistency indices were also significantly affected, which might have an influence on the final baked goods. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model satisfactorily described sorption data, while both hemp addition and temperature had a significant effect. A significantly higher hardness of 11.55 N, a lower specific volume of 2.65 cm3 g-1 , and a lower porosity of 0.676 were observed at high hemp additions. The hemp flour level influenced the color of the crumb and crust, and the total color difference (ΔE) increased significantly with the increase in hemp flour. Hemp flour additions were detectable by the naked eye, with an obvious color difference between control and hemp-containing samples. Moreover, the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were increased, as were some organoleptic characteristics, such as the bitter aftertaste. Concurrently, overall acceptability decreased significantly.

Conclusion: Overall, the incorporation of gluten-free defatted hemp seed flour in 'tsoureki' formulations seems to be a promising alternative for improving quality of such rich-dough baked products. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: baking process; image analysis; rheology; sorption; sweet baked goods; texture.