Background: The goal of precision medicine in prostate cancer (PCa) is to individualize the treatment according to the patient's germline mutation status. PCa has a very high rate of genetic predisposition compared with other cancers in men, with an estimated rate of cancers ascribable to hereditary factors of 5-15%.
Methods: A systematic search (PubMed, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov) of English literature from 2000 to 2022, using the keywords "prostate cancer", "germline mutations", "family history", and "inheritance" was conducted, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines.
Results: The search identified 980 publications. Of these, 200 papers were removed before screening (duplicates, non-English literature, and publication year before 2000) and 245 records were excluded after title/abstract screening. Finally, 50 articles were included in the final analysis. We analyze the latest evidence on the genetic basis of PCa predisposition and clinical implications for more personalized screening protocols and therapeutic management of this high-prevalent cancer.
Discussion: Emerging data show that germline mutations in homologous recombination genes (BRCA1/2, ATM, CHECK2), in mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MLH2, MSH6), and other additional genes are associated with the development and aggressiveness of PCa. Germline testing and genetic counseling have increasingly important implications in cancer screening and therapeutic decisions making for patients affected by PCa. Patients with localized PCa and some gene mutations are more likely to develop aggressive cancer, so active treatment may be preferable to active surveillance for these patients. Moreover, in patients with metastatic PCa, these gene alterations may be useful biomarkers for predicting response to specific therapy such as PARP inhibitors, recently approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant PCa. The evidence supports recent guidelines and recommendations considering germline genetic testing for patients with a positive family history of PCa or men with high risk or metastatic disease.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.