Skin sequelae in patients with infantile hemangioma: a systematic review

Eur J Pediatr. 2023 Feb;182(2):479-488. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04688-1. Epub 2022 Nov 24.


Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common vascular tumor in infancy. Although IHs can regress spontaneously, some problematic IHs still need treatment. However, either treated or untreated IHs may leave skin sequelae which can cause permanent disfigurement. Many studies evaluated the short-term efficacy of different kinds of treatment, but now, few studies are focusing on long-term skin sequelae. The objectives of our systemic review were to identify skin sequelae of IH thoroughly, determine specific factors associated with long-term IH sequelae, and learn how to improve these sequelae. We searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Three independent authors assessed the articles, and we reported this systemic review following PRISMA guidelines. Of 4448 articles initially identified, 62 underwent full-text review, and 17 met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of sequelae ranged from 5.3 to 93.5%. Factors associated with skin sequelae included patients' demographics, hemangioma characteristics, and treatment factors. What is Known: • Infantile hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor during infancy. • Infantile hemangiomas can regress spontaneously but either treated or untreated patients may leave permanent skin sequelae. What is New: • Skin sequelae in involuted Infantile hemangiomas are very common. • It is significant to prevent, recognize, and improve skin sequelae of infantile hemangiomas.

Keywords: Infantile hemangioma; Involution; Sequela; Systemic review.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Progression
  • Hemangioma* / complications
  • Hemangioma* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Skin / pathology
  • Skin Neoplasms* / complications
  • Skin Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Vascular Neoplasms*