Immunohistochemical Profiling and Staging in Esthesioneuroblastoma: A Single-Center Cohort Study and Systematic Review

World Neurosurg. 2023 Feb:170:e652-e665. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.11.094. Epub 2022 Nov 24.


Objective: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare sinonasal malignant neoplasm with 40% 5-year survival. Because of the rarity of the tumor, the optimal treatment and subsequent prediction of prognosis are unclear. We studied a modern series of patients with ENB to evaluate the association of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers and clinical stages/grades with outcomes.

Methods: A single-center retrospective review of patients with ENB treated during a 25-year period was performed. A systematic literature review evaluating the prognostic benefits of current staging systems in evaluating survival outcomes in ENB was undertaken.

Results: Among 29 included patients, 25 (85%) were treated surgically at our institution, with 76% of those endoscopically resected; 7 (24.1%) received chemotherapy, and 18 (62.1%) received radiation therapy. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 91.3%, and 10-year OS was 78.3%. Progression-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 85.6% and 68.2%, respectively. A total of 36 distinct IHC markers were used to diagnose ENB but were inconsistent in predicting survival. A systematic literature review revealed predictive accuracy for OS using the Kadish, TNM, and Hyams staging/grading systems was 68%, 42%, and 50%, respectively.

Conclusions: This study reports the 5- and 10-year OS and progression-free survival in a modern series of patients with ENB. No traditional IHC marker consistently predicted outcome. Some novel reviewed markers show promise but have yet to enter clinical mainstream use. Our systematic review of accepted staging/grading systems also demonstrated a need for further investigation due to limited prognostic accuracy.

Keywords: Esthesioneuroblastoma; Grading; Hyams grading scale; Kadish staging system; Olfactory neuroblastoma; Sinonasal cancer; Staging; TNM classification of malignant tumors.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Nasal Cavity / pathology
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Nose Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies