Vedolizumab for acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Front Immunol. 2022 Nov 11;13:1025350. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1025350. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of vedolizumab for the prophylaxis and treatment of gastrointestinal involvement of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (GI-aGVHD).

Methods: Literature search within PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for observational studies and clinical trials that evaluated the effect of vedolizumab on GI-aGVHD was done through 17 May 2022. A bivariate and random-effect meta-analysis derived the pooled observational percentages and pooled risk ratios (RRs) from baseline of primary endpoints including overall response, complete response, mortality, and adverse events.

Results: There was a total of 122 participants in eight eligible studies, including one study on the prophylactic use of vedolizumab and seven studies on vedolizumab for the treatment of GI-aGVHD. Of seven studies that reported details on baseline grades of GI-aGVHD, a total of 47 patients (47.95%) were of stage 4, 31 patients (31.63%) were of stage 3, 10 patients (10.2%) were of stage 2, and 10 patients (10.2%) were of stage 1. The use of vedolizumab for the treatment of GI-aGVHD yielded a significantly improved objective response rate (ORR) at 14 days (pooled ORR = 60.53%, pooled RR = 14.14, 95% CI: 2.95-67.71), 28 days (pooled ORR = 50%, RR = 7.36, 95% CI = 2.14-25.37), and 12 months (pooled ORR = 76.92%, RR = 13.66, 95% CI = 3.5-53.35) from baseline. Likewise, the use of vedolizumab was followed by a significantly improved complete response (CR) at 12 months (pooled CR = 27.27%, RR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.01-29.95), yet the CR at 14 days and 28 days did not reach statistical significance. Fifty-seven out of 87 (pooled overall survival, OS = 34.5%) and 46 out of 65 (pooled OS = 29.2%) patients expired at 6 and 12 months after the use of vedolizumab, respectively. Prophylactic use of vedolizumab was not associated with any specific type of reported adverse events, while patients with GI-aGVHD on vedolizumab presented with significantly increased risks of adverse events including infections (RR = 7.55) and impaired metabolism or nutritional complications (RR = 9.00). All analyses were of a low heterogeneity (all I-squares = 0%).

Conclusion: Vedolizumab was safe and effective for the prophylaxis and management of early grade GI-aGVHD. More clinical evidence is warranted to validate these findings.

Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=345584, identifier CRD42022345584.

Keywords: acute GVHD; alpha-4-beta-7 integrins; biologics; graft-versus-host disease; vedolizumab.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Graft vs Host Disease* / drug therapy
  • Graft vs Host Disease* / etiology
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Remission Induction