Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Case Report with Oral and Ocular Presentation

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2022 Jul 1;23(7):755-759.

Abstract

Aim: To describe the diagnosis and management of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with oral and ocular presentation.

Background: Mucous membrane pemphigoid constitutes a heterogeneous group of chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous diseases characterized by blister formation that has a propensity to affect different mucous membranes of the body. The most commonly affected areas include the oral cavity, mucous membranes of the eyes, throat, genitalia, and nose. This disease usually affects elderly women with a peak incidence at around 50-70 years of age; however, rare cases have been diagnosed in children. The symptoms of MMP include recurrent blistering lesions which eventually rupture and occasionally heal with scarring that may lead to certain complications involving the eyes and throat regions.

Case description: In this report, we describe a 66-year-old female patient who complained of oral and ocular lesions for a period of 2 years. Pain, burning mouth, and gingival inflammation were present. Ocular examination showed mild conjunctivitis with scar formation at the lateral canthus of the left eye. The patient also noticed periods of water-filled balloon-like formation in the gingiva that rupture spontaneously leaving sore spots. A biopsy was obtained from perilesional tissue and sent for histopathological examination, correlation of clinical and histological features directed us toward the diagnosis of MMP. The patient was treated for both oral and ocular lesions using topical corticosteroid therapy in conjunction with antifungal and antibacterial drugs. The response to local treatment was augmented via effective periodontal therapy to control the concurrent plaque-induced gingival inflammation and via using a customized application tray to sustain the drug efficacy.

Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach is often necessary in order to treat MMP lesions efficaciously.

Clinical significance: Early diagnosis and effective treatment protocol using systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy along with other therapeutic means including periodontal therapy, good oral hygiene practice, and timely follow-up are very useful in preventing long-term complications due to this disease.

Keywords: Autoimmune; Mucous membrane pemphigoid; Topical corticosteroids Vesiculobullous disease..

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology
  • Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane* / diagnosis
  • Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane* / drug therapy
  • Pemphigoid, Bullous* / complications
  • Pemphigoid, Bullous* / drug therapy
  • Pemphigoid, Bullous* / pathology

Substances

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones