Movement disorders in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP): a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis

Neurol Sci. 2023 Mar;44(3):947-959. doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-06516-8. Epub 2022 Nov 28.


Background: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a rare genetic disorder associated with mutations in > 80 loci designated SPG (SPastic parapleGia). The phenotypic spectrum of HSP can extend to include other neurologic features, including movement disorders. Our aim was to investigate genotype-phenotype associations in HSP with a focus on movement disorders.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-analysis by retrieving publications from Medline/EMBASE/Web of Science on HSP with a SPG genotype. Studies were included only if individual-level information was accessible and at least one patient with a movement disorder was reported for that genotype. Out of 21,957 hits, 192 manuscripts with a total of 1413 HSP cases were eligible. Data were compared between two HSP groups: manifested with (HSP-MD, n = 767) or without (HSP-nMD, n = 646) a movement disorder.

Results: The HSP-MD group had an older age of onset (20.5 ± 16.0 vs. 17.1 ± 14.2 yr, p < 0.001) and less frequent autosomal dominant inheritance (7.6% vs. 30.1%, p < 0.001) compared to HSP-nMD. SPG7 (31.2%) and SPG11 (23.8%) were the most frequent genotypes in the HSP-MD group. HSP-MD with SPG7 had higher frequency of later onset during adulthood (82.9% vs. 8.5%), ataxia (OR = 12.6), extraocular movement disturbances (OR = 3.4) and seizure (OR = 3.7) compared to HSP-MD with SPG11. Conversely, SPG11 mutations were more frequently associated with consanguinity (OR = 4.1), parkinsonism (OR = 7.8), dystonia (OR = 5.4), peripheral neuropathy (OR = 26.9), and cognitive dysfunction (OR = 34.5).

Conclusion: This systematic IPD-level meta-analysis provides the largest data on genotype-phenotype associations in HSP-MD. Several clinically relevant phenotypic differences were found between various genotypes, which can possibly facilitate diagnosis in resource-limited settings.

Keywords: Genotype; Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP); Movement disorders; Phenotype; SPG (SPastic parapleGia).

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Movement Disorders*
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Paraplegia / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary*


  • SPG11 protein, human
  • Proteins

Supplementary concepts

  • Spastic paraplegia 11, autosomal recessive