Hand Hygiene among Anesthesiologists and Microorganisms Contamination in Anesthesia Environments: A Single-Center Observational Study

Biomed Environ Sci. 2022 Nov 20;35(11):992-1000. doi: 10.3967/bes2022.128.


Objective: To investigate the baseline levels of microorganisms' growth on the hands of anesthesiologists and in the anesthesia environment at a cancer hospital.

Methods: This study performed in nine operating rooms and among 25 anesthesiologists at a cancer hospital. Sampling of the hands of anesthesiologists and the anesthesia environment was performed at a ready-to-use operating room before patient contact began and after decontamination.

Results: Microorganisms' growth results showed that 20% (5/25) of anesthesiologists' hands carried microorganisms (> 10 CFU/cm 2) before patient contact began. Female anesthesiologists performed hand hygiene better than did their male counterparts, with fewer CFUs ( P = 0.0069) and fewer species ( P = 0.0202). Our study also found that 55.6% (5/9) of ready-to-use operating rooms carried microorganisms (> 5 CFU/cm 2). Microorganisms regrowth began quickly (1 hour) after disinfection, and increased gradually over time, reaching the threshold at 4 hours after disinfection. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the hands of 20% (5/25) of anesthesiologists and 33.3% (3/9) of operating rooms.

Conclusion: Our study indicates that male anesthesiologists need to pay more attention to the standard operating procedures and effect evaluation of hand hygiene, daily cleaning rate of the operating room may be insufficient, and we would suggest that there should be a repeat cleaning every four hours.

Keywords: Anesthesia environments; Anesthesiologists; Contamination; Hand hygiene.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia
  • Anesthesiologists* / statistics & numerical data
  • Disinfection / standards
  • Female
  • Hand Hygiene* / standards
  • Hand Hygiene* / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Operating Rooms / standards
  • Operating Rooms / statistics & numerical data
  • Staphylococcal Infections
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification