Biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) occurs in about 25% of patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and up to 45% in patients who receive external beam radiotherapy (RT). Early diagnosis of PCa recurrence is of high importance for successful salvage therapy. The aim of the present study is to analyze the efficacy of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT in detecting the presence of local and/or systemic disease in patients with a history of PCa who have BCR. A total of 52 PCa patients with BCR referred for 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT were recruited from the American University of Beirut Medical Center between November 2017 and December 2019. We compared the performance of PSMA PET/CT to the results and clinical factors based on follow up: PSA, PSA kinetics, primary treatment, and Gleason score. The relationship between the PET/CT findings and clinical indicators of disease were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. From a total of 52 patients, 34 (65.4%) had positive PSMA-PET/CT scans. Among those, 8/34 (23.5%) received primary RT. For all patients with a positive PSMA-PET: the detection rate was 2/4 (50%) for PSA < 0.2, 5/10 (50%) for PSA 0.2-0.49, 3/6 (50%) for PSA 0.5-0.99, 6/12 (50%) for PSA 1-1.99, 8/9 (88.9%) for PSA 2-3.99, and 10/11 (90.9%) for PSA 4-10.PSMA-PET/CT positivity was significantly associated with PSA level at time of PET scan, PSA doubling time, Gleason score and TNM staging. However, it did not show a significant correlation with radiotherapy as primary treatment, ongoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), time to relapse, and initial PSA before therapy. In our single center prospective trial, 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT successfully detected the recurrence of PCa in patients with BCR. Scan positivity was significantly associated with PSA level at time of PET scan, PSA doubling time, Gleason score, and TNM staging. PSMA- PET/CT is a highly promising modality in the work up of patients with PCa in the setting of BCR for earlier detection of disease recurrence.
© 2022. The Author(s).