Turkish Adaptation of the Executive Functions and Occupational Routines Scale: Validity and Reliability Among Children with Dyslexia

Percept Mot Skills. 2023 Feb;130(1):364-385. doi: 10.1177/00315125221142650. Epub 2022 Nov 29.


The purpose of the present study was to provide a Turkish cultural adaptation (EFORTS-T) of the Executive Functions and Occupational Routines Scale (EFORTS) and to investigate its psychometric quality in children with dyslexia. We culturally adapted the original English version of this instrument with internationally suggested methods. Participants included the mothers of either randomly selected children with dyslexia (study group, n = 158) or age and sex-matched typically developing children (control group, n = 167). These participants completed a demographic form, the EFORTS-T, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent form (BRIEF-P). For internal consistency, the alpha coefficient of the new instrument was excellent (.93), and it showed satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 14-day interval (.91). The criterion-related validity between the EFORTS-T and the BRIEF-P was moderate (.73). Fit indices of the model supported its factor structure. In conclusion, our findings support the validity and reliability of the new Turkish version of EFORTS for evaluating EF and contributing to the daily occupational routines of children with dyslexia for Turkish respondents. Further studies are needed to apply this instrument to children of different age groups and psychiatric conditions.

Keywords: BRIEF; daily routines; dyslexia; executive control; executive function; occupation.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Dyslexia*
  • Executive Function*
  • Humans
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires