Clinical description, molecular delineation and genotype-phenotype correlation in 340 patients with KBG syndrome: addition of 67 new patients

J Med Genet. 2022 Nov 29;jmedgenet-2022-108632. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2022-108632. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: KBG syndrome is a highly variable neurodevelopmental disorder and clinical diagnostic criteria have changed as new patients have been reported. Both loss-of-function sequence variants and large deletions (copy number variations, CNVs) involving ANKRD11 cause KBG syndrome, but no genotype-phenotype correlation has been reported.

Methods: 67 patients with KBG syndrome were assessed using a custom phenotypical questionnaire. Manifestations present in >50% of the patients and a 'phenotypical score' were used to perform a genotype-phenotype correlation in 340 patients from our cohort and the literature.

Results: Neurodevelopmental delay, macrodontia, triangular face, characteristic ears, nose and eyebrows were the most prevalentf (eatures. 82.8% of the patients had at least one of seven main comorbidities: hearing loss and/or otitis media, visual problems, cryptorchidism, cardiopathy, feeding difficulties and/or seizures. Associations found included a higher phenotypical score in patients with sequence variants compared with CNVs and a higher frequency of triangular face (71.1% vs 42.5% in CNVs). Short stature was more frequent in patients with exon 9 variants (62.5% inside vs 27.8% outside exon 9), and the prevalence of intellectual disability/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/autism spectrum disorder was lower in patients with the c.1903_1907del variant (70.4% vs 89.4% other variants). Presence of macrodontia and comorbidities were associated with larger deletion sizes and hand anomalies with smaller deletions.

Conclusion: We present a detailed phenotypical description of KBG syndrome in the largest series reported to date of 67 patients, provide evidence of a genotype-phenotype correlation between some KBG features and specific ANKRD11 variants in 340 patients, and propose updated clinical diagnostic criteria based on our findings.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Genetics; Genetics, Medical; Pediatrics.