Recent trends in Bi-based nanomaterials: challenges, fabrication, enhancement techniques, and environmental applications

Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 2022 Nov 11;13:1316-1336. doi: 10.3762/bjnano.13.109. eCollection 2022.


One of the most enticing approaches to environmental restoration and energy conversion is photocatalysis powered by solar light. Traditional photocatalysts have limited practical uses due to inadequate light absorption, charge separation, and unknown reaction mechanisms. Discovering new visible-light photocatalysts and investigating their modification is crucial in photocatalysis. Bi-based photocatalytic nanomaterials have gotten much interest as they exhibit distinctive geometric shapes, flexible electronic structures, and good photocatalytic performance under visible light. They can be employed as stand-alone photocatalysts for pollution control and energy production, but they do not have optimum efficacy. As a result, their photocatalytic effectiveness has been significantly improved in the recent decades. Numerous newly created concepts and methodologies have brought significant progress in defining the fundamental features of photocatalysts, upgrading the photocatalytic ability, and understanding essential reactions of the photocatalytic process. This paper provides insights into the characteristics of Bi-based photocatalysts, making them a promising future nanomaterial for environmental remediation. The current review discusses the fabrication techniques and enhancement in Bi-based semiconductor photocatalysts. Various environmental applications, such as H2 generation and elimination of water pollutants, are also discussed in terms of semiconductor photocatalysis. Future developments will be guided by the uses, issues, and possibilities of Bi-based photocatalysts.

Keywords: bismuth-based nanomaterials; environmental remediation; heterojunction formation; photocatalysis.

Publication types

  • Review