Role of a novel cationic gemini surfactant (CGS) on a one-step sol-gel process and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 powders

J Water Health. 2022 Nov;20(11):1629-1643. doi: 10.2166/wh.2022.069.


TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using a sol-gel process in combination with a novel cationic gemini surfactant (CGS) with amide functional groups at low temperatures. Titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIP) and CGS were used as the starting materials and as effective agents, respectively, to orient the nanoparticles during the sol-gel synthesis. To reveal both the structural and morphological properties of the nanopowders prepared in this work, they were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area apparatus. The pore volume and pore size were calculated using the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model on the desorption branch. The experimental results show that the surface area and average crystallite size of the obtained TiO2 nanopowders vary between 160-203 m2/g and 27-49 nm, respectively. It was observed that the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms for almost all samples of TiO2-X% CGS (X: mass of CGS) show the typical Type I with a hysteresis loop of H4. The photocatalytic activities of the CGS-modified nanocomposites are evaluated not only by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) but also by the reduction of Cr(VI) as model pollutants in the presence of visible light.

MeSH terms

  • Nanoparticles*
  • Powders
  • Surface-Active Agents
  • Titanium*


  • Powders
  • titanium dioxide
  • Titanium
  • Surface-Active Agents