Review on Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks and Potential Molecular Markers for Tracing Back Investigations

Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2022 Dec;19(12):796-805. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2022.0054. Epub 2022 Nov 25.


Cyclosporiasis is an emerging disease caused by Cyclospora cayetanensis, which induces protracting and relapsing gastroenteritis and has been linked to huge and complicated travel- and food-related outbreaks worldwide. Cyclosporiasis has become more common in both developing and developed countries as a result of increased global travel and the globalization of the human food supply. It is not just a burden on individual human health but also a worldwide public health problem. As a pathogen of interest, the molecular biological characteristics of C. cayetanensis have advanced significantly over the last few decades. However, only one FDA-approved molecular platform has been commercially used in the investigation of cyclosporiasis outbreaks. More potential molecular markers and genotyping of C. cayetanensis in samples based on the polymorphic region of the whole genomes might differentiate between separate case clusters and would be useful in tracing back investigations, especially during cyclosporiasis outbreak investigations. Considering that there is no effective vaccine for cyclosporosis, epidemiological investigation using effective tools is crucial for controlling cyclosporiasis by source tracking. Therefore, more and more epidemiological investigative studies for human cyclosporiasis should be promoted around the world to get a deeper understanding of its characteristics as well as management. This review focuses on major cyclosporiasis outbreaks and potential molecular markers for tracing back investigations into cyclosporiasis outbreaks.

Keywords: cyclosporosis; molecular markers; outbreaks; tracing back investigations.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cyclospora* / genetics
  • Cyclosporiasis* / diagnosis
  • Cyclosporiasis* / epidemiology
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Gastroenteritis* / epidemiology
  • Humans