Previous research (Aharoni et al., 2013, 2014) found that hemodynamic activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during error monitoring predicted non-violent felony rearrest in men released from prison. This article reports an extension of the Aharoni et al. (2013, 2014) model in a sample of women released from state prison (n = 248). Replicating aspects of prior work, error monitoring activity in the dACC, as well as psychopathy scores and age at release, predicted non-violent felony rearrest in women. Sex differences in the directionality of dACC activity were observed-high error monitoring activity predicted rearrest in women, whereas prior work found low error monitoring activity predicted rearrest in men. As in prior analyses, the ability of the dACC to predict rearrest outcomes declines with more generalized outcomes (i.e., general felony). Implications for future research and clinical and forensic risk assessment are discussed.
Keywords: Error monitoring; Impulsivity; Recidivism; Risk assessment.
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