Cognition, function, and prevalent dementia in centenarians and near-centenarians: An individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of 18 studies

Alzheimers Dement. 2023 Jun;19(6):2265-2275. doi: 10.1002/alz.12828. Epub 2022 Dec 1.


Introduction: There are limited data on prevalence of dementia in centenarians and near-centenarians (C/NC), its determinants, and whether the risk of dementia continues to rise beyond 100.

Methods: Participant-level data were obtained from 18 community-based studies (N = 4427) in 11 countries that included individuals ≥95 years. A harmonization protocol was applied to cognitive and functional impairments, and a meta-analysis was performed.

Results: The mean age was 98.3 years (SD = 2.67); 79% were women. After adjusting for age, sex, and education, dementia prevalence was 53.2% in women and 45.5% in men, with risk continuing to increase with age. Education (OR 0.95;0.92-0.98) was protective, as was hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0.51;0.35-0.74) in five studies. Dementia was not associated with diabetes, vision and hearing impairments, smoking, and body mass index (BMI).

Discussion: Among the exceptional old, dementia prevalence remains higher in the older participants. Education was protective against dementia, but other factors for dementia-free survival in C/NC remain to be understood.

Keywords: centenarians; dementia; education; exceptional longevity; prevalence; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Body Mass Index
  • Centenarians*
  • Cognition*
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male