Archeal tRNA meets biotechnology: From vaccines to genetic code expansion

J Biol Chem. 2023 Jan;299(1):102755. doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.102755. Epub 2022 Nov 29.


Engineering new protein functionalities through the addition of noncoded amino acids is a major biotechnological endeavor that needs to overcome the natural firewalls that prevent misincorporation during protein synthesis. This field is in constant evolution driven by the discovery or design of new tools, many of which are based on archeal biology. In a recent article published in JBC, one such tool is characterized and its evolution studied, revealing unexpected details regarding the emergence of the universal genetic code machinery.

Keywords: Archaea; Biotechnology; Genetic Code expansion; pyrrolysine; pyrrolysine-tRNA synthetase; tRNA.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases* / metabolism
  • Archaea / genetics
  • Genetic Code
  • Lysine / metabolism
  • RNA, Transfer / genetics
  • RNA, Transfer / metabolism
  • Vaccines*


  • Lysine
  • RNA, Transfer
  • Vaccines
  • Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases