The Characteristics of Patients With COVID-19-Associated Pediatric Vasculitis: An International, Multicenter Study

Arthritis Rheumatol. 2023 Apr;75(4):499-506. doi: 10.1002/art.42411. Epub 2023 Jan 23.


Objective: COVID-19-associated pediatric vasculitis, other than Kawasaki disease (KD)-like vasculitis in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), is very rare. This study sought to analyze the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19-associated pediatric vasculitis (excluding KD-like vasculitis in MIS-C).

Methods: The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age <18 years at vasculitis onset; 2) evidence of vasculitis; 3) evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure; and 4) ≤3 months between SARS-CoV-2 exposure and vasculitis onset. Patients with MIS-C were excluded. The features of the subset of patients in our cohort who had COVID-19-associated pediatric IgA vasculitis/Henoch Schönlein purpura (IgAV/HSP) were compared against a pre-pandemic cohort of pediatric IgAV/HSP patients.

Results: Forty-one patients (median age 8.3 years; male to female ratio 1.3) were included from 14 centers and 6 countries. The most frequent vasculitis subtype was IgAV/HSP (n = 30). The median duration between SARS-CoV-2 exposure and vasculitis onset was 13 days. Involvement of the skin (92.7%) and of the gastrointestinal system (61%) were the most common manifestations of vasculitis. Most patients (68.3%) received glucocorticoids, and 14.6% also received additional immunosuppressive drugs. Remission was achieved in all patients. All of the patients with IgAV/HSP in our cohort had skin manifestations, while 18 (60%) had gastrointestinal involvement and 13 (43.3%) had renal involvement. When we compared the features of this subset of 30 patients to those of a pre-pandemic pediatric IgAV/HSP cohort (n = 159), the clinical characteristics of fever and renal involvement were more common in our COVID-19-associated pediatric IgAV/HSP cohort (fever, 30% versus 5%, respectively [P < 0.001]; renal involvement, 43.3% versus 17.6%, respectively [P = 0.002]). Recovery without treatment and complete recovery were each less frequent among our COVID-19-associated pediatric IgAV/HSP patients compared to the pre-pandemic pediatric IgAV/HSP cohort (recovery without treatment, 10% versus 39%, respectively [P = 0.002]; complete recovery, 86.7% versus 99.4%, respectively [P = 0.002]).

Conclusion: This is the largest cohort of children with COVID-19-associated vasculitis (excluding MIS-C) studied to date. Our findings suggest that children with COVID-19-associated IgAV/HSP experience a more severe disease course compared to pediatric IgAV/HSP patients before the pandemic.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • IgA Vasculitis* / complications
  • IgA Vasculitis* / drug therapy
  • IgA Vasculitis* / epidemiology
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Male
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome* / complications
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vasculitis* / epidemiology
  • Vasculitis* / etiology


  • Immunoglobulin A

Supplementary concepts

  • pediatric multisystem inflammatory disease, COVID-19 related