County-level spatiotemporal distribution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in outpatient settings of the Veterans' Health Administration, 2000-2017

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2023 Sep;44(9):1497-1499. doi: 10.1017/ice.2022.291. Epub 2022 Dec 2.


Fluoroquinolone resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a notable challenge for appropriate empiric therapy in outpatient settings. We describe the spatial distribution of fluoroquinolone resistance and its chronological change between 2000 and 2017 in the nationwide Veterans' Health Administration system. We found spatially concentrated increasing prevalence in the 2000s, followed by spatial dispersion in the 2010s.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Fluoroquinolones* / pharmacology
  • Fluoroquinolones* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Outpatients
  • Veterans*


  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents