Prenatal Diagnosis of Bladder Exstrophy and OEIS over 20 Years

Urology. 2023 Feb:172:174-177. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2022.11.020. Epub 2022 Nov 30.


Objective: To examine the prenatal diagnosis rates of bladder exstrophy (BE) and Omphalocele-Exstrophy-Imperforate anus-Spinal Defect Syndrome (OEIS) in a large cohort of patients over a 20-year period. We hypothesized that prenatal diagnosis rates improved over time due to evolving techniques in fetal imaging.

Methods: A multi-institutional database was queried to identify BE or OEIS patients who underwent primary closure between 2000 and 2020. We retrospectively determined prenatal or postnatal diagnosis. Those with unknown prenatal history were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate temporal pattern in rate of prenatal diagnosis while adjusting for sex and treating institution.

Results: Among 197 BE and 52 OEIS patients, 155 BE and 45 OEIS patients had known prenatal history. Overall prenatal diagnosis rates of BE and OEIS were 47.1% (73/155) and 82.2% (37/45), respectively. Prenatal diagnosis rate was significantly lower in BE compared to OEIS (P <.0001). The prenatal diagnosis rate for BE significantly increased over time (OR 1.10; [95%CI: 1.03-1.17]; P = .003). Between 2000 and 2005, the prenatal diagnosis rate of BE was 30.3% (10/33). Between 2015 and 2020, prenatal diagnosis rate of BE was 61.1% (33/54). Prenatal diagnosis rate for OEIS did not change over time. Rates of prenatal diagnosis did not differ by sex or treating institution.

Conclusion: Rates of prenatal diagnosis of BE and OEIS are higher than previously reported. Prenatal diagnosis rate of BE doubled in the last 5 years compared to the first 5 years of the study period. Nonetheless, a significant proportion of both BE and OEIS patients remain undiagnosed prior to delivery.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / diagnostic imaging
  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / epidemiology
  • Bladder Exstrophy* / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Hernia, Umbilical* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hernia, Umbilical* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Syndrome

Supplementary concepts

  • Omphalocele exstrophy imperforate anus