Cytokines network in primary membranous nephropathy

Int Immunopharmacol. 2022 Dec;113(Pt A):109412. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2022.109412. Epub 2022 Nov 8.


There have been extensive studies on the immunological mechanism of primary membranous nephropathy (PMN). Autoantibodies, being the end product of humoral auto-immunity, matter much in diagnosis, therapy and prediction. Although PMN has been thought of as oligoinflammatory glomerulopathy, autoimmune diseases usually involve inflammation and it may be long-lasting. Cytokines are key mediators and effector molecules of inflammatory and humoral immune responses. Their function and network are helpful to understand the immune mechanism of PMN, but there is a lack of systematic summary. Accordingly, this review explores the advance of cytokines in PMN, and clarifies whether inflammation involves in the pathological process of PMN, based on which certain cytokines are proposed as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets, and the importance of updating existing therapy regimens is highlighted.

Keywords: Autoimmune; Cytokines; Inflammation; Primary membranous nephropathy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies
  • Autoimmune Diseases*
  • Cytokines
  • Glomerulonephritis, Membranous*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation


  • Autoantibodies
  • Cytokines