Splenic-targeting biomimetic nanovaccine for elevating protective immunity against virus infection

J Nanobiotechnology. 2022 Dec 3;20(1):514. doi: 10.1186/s12951-022-01730-0.


Background: The prevalence of viral infectious diseases has become a serious threat to public safety, economic and social development. Vaccines have been served as the most effective platform to prevent virus transmission via the activation of host immune responses, while the low immunogenicity or safety, the high cost of production, storage, transport limit their effective clinical application. Therefore, there is a need to develop a promising strategy to improve the immunogenicity and safety of vaccines.

Methods: We developed a splenic-targeting biomimetic nanovaccine (NV) that can boost protective humoral and cellular immunity against african swine fever virus (ASFV) infection. The universal PLGA nanoparticles (CMR-PLGA/p54 NPs) coated with mannose and CpG (TLR9 agonist) co-modified red blood cell (RBC) membrane were prepared, which comprised a viral antigen (p54) and can be served as a versatile nanovaccine for elevating protective immunity.

Results: CMR-PLGA/p54 NVs could be effectively uptaken by BMDC and promoted BMDC maturation in vitro. After subcutaneous immunization, antigen could be effectively delivered to the splenic dendritic cells (DCs) due to the splenic homing ability of RBC and DC targeting capacity of mannose, which promoted antigen presentation and DCs maturation, and further elicited higher levels of cytokines secretion and specific IgG titers, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells activation and B maturation. Moreover, NVs demonstrated notable safety during the immunization period.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the high potential of CMR-PLGA NPs as vaccine delivery carriers to promote humoral and cellular immune responses, and it provides a promising strategy to develop safe and effective vaccines against viral infectious diseases.

Keywords: ASFV; Biomimetic nanovaccine; CpG; Red blood cell membrane; Targeting.

MeSH terms

  • African Swine Fever Virus*
  • Animals
  • Biomimetics
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Mannose
  • Swine
  • Virus Diseases*


  • Mannose