Ovarian aging is associated with a decrease in fecundity. Increased oxidative stress of granulosa cells (GCs) is an important contributor. We thus asked whether there is an oxidative stress-related gene signature in GCs associated with ovarian aging. Public nonhuman primate (NHP) single-cell transcriptome was processed to identify GC cluster. Then, a GC signature for ovarian aging was established based on six oxidative stress-related differentially expressed genes (MAPK1, STK24, AREG, ATG7, ANXA1, and PON2). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis confirmed good discriminating capacity in both NHP single-cell and human bulk transcriptome datasets. Gene expression levels were investigated using qPCR in the human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line (KGN) and mouse GCs. In an oxidative stress model, KGN cells were treated with menadione (7.5 μM, 24 h) to induce oxidative stress, after which upregulation of MAPK1, STK24, ATG7, ANXA1, and PON2 and downregulation of AREG were observed (p < 0.05). In an aging model, KGN cells were continuously cultured for 3 months, leading to increased expressions of all genes (p < 0.05). In GCs of reproductively aged (8-month-old) Kunming mice, upregulated expression of Mapk1, Stk24, Atg7, and Pon2 and downregulated expression of Anxa1 and Areg were observed (p < 0.01). We therefore here identify a six-gene GC signature associated with oxidative stress and ovarian aging.
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