A two-group design was used to compare the state behavior of newborns who roomed-in with their mothers at night with those who were cared for by the traditional nursery-at-night method. Twenty-one full-term, low-risk newborns comprised the study sample. Data were collected using a sleep monitor bassinet for two consecutive nights after delivery. Comparison of the nursery environment with the mother's postpartum room at night revealed greater light and sound levels in the nursery setting. Regarding caregiving practices, rooming-in infants received more contact with the caregiver and care that was more often related to their state behavior. Infants in the mother's room had significantly, p less than .001, more quiet sleep (33% vs. 25.4%), less indeterminate (4.8% vs. 11.2%), and less crying (0.6% vs. 7.5%) states than infants who remained in the nursery.