Development and Beta-Testing of the CONFIDENCE Intervention to Increase Pediatric COVID-19 Vaccination

J Pediatr Health Care. 2023 May-Jun;37(3):244-252. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2022.11.002. Epub 2022 Nov 17.


Introduction: Innovative strategies are needed to improve pediatric COVID-19 vaccination rates. We describe the process for developing a clinic-based intervention, CONFIDENCE, to improve pediatric COVID-19 vaccine uptake and present results of our beta-test for feasibility and acceptability.

Method: CONFIDENCE included communication training with providers, a poster campaign, and parent-facing educational materials. We assessed feasibility and acceptability through interviews and measured preliminary vaccine intention outcomes with a pre-post parent survey. Interviews were analyzed using rapid qualitative methods. We generated descriptive statistics for variables on the parent survey and used Fisher's exact test to assess pre-post differences.

Results: Participating providers (n = 4) reported high levels of feasibility and acceptability. We observed positive trends in parents' (n = 69) reports of discussing vaccination with their provider and the parental decision to accept COVID-19 vaccination.

Discussion: Our next steps will be to use more rigorous methods to establish the efficacy and effectiveness of the CONFIDENCE intervention.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccination; intervention development; pediatrics; vaccine hesitancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines*
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Parents / education
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vaccination


  • COVID-19 Vaccines