Impact of the preoperative nutritional status on postoperative kyphosis in geriatric patients undergoing cervical laminoplasty

Eur Spine J. 2023 Jan;32(1):374-381. doi: 10.1007/s00586-022-07481-8. Epub 2022 Dec 5.

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the association of preoperative malnutrition with an increased risk of cervical kyphosis after laminoplasty in geriatric patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Methods: Geriatric patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty were included. Malnutrition was defined as a geriatric nutritional risk index < 98 before surgery. The C2-7 angle and the global alignment parameters were analyzed on standing radiographs. The postoperative kyphosis was defined as a C2-7 angle < 0° during a 2-year follow-up.

Results: Ninety patients without preoperative kyphotic alignment were enrolled (mean age, 73.5 years old; 41.1% female). Twenty-one patients (23.3%) had malnutrition status (74.2 years old). Preoperatively, the global alignment parameters were comparable between the malnutrition and normal nutrition groups (SVA, 43.3 mm vs. 42.4 mm; T1S, 29.7° vs. 28.4°; TPA, 21.4° vs. 17.8°), with no significant difference in the C2-7 angle (15.1° vs. 15.2°). At 2 years postoperatively, the malnutrition group showed a significantly lower C2-7 angle than the normal nutrition group (9.3° vs. 15.8°, P = 0.03). Postoperative kyphosis was more prevalent in the malnutrition group (33.3% vs. 7.2%, P = 0.005). The preoperative nutritional status and C2-7 angle were independent predictors of postoperative kyphosis. The predictive C2-7 angles differed by preoperative nutritional status (malnutrition group, 11°; normal nutrition group, 7°).

Conclusion: Among geriatric CSM patients, preoperative malnutrition was closely associated with the increased occurrence of cervical kyphosis after laminoplasty. Our results underscore the importance of preoperative nutritional assessment and management in geriatric populations undergoing cervical spine surgery, as malnutrition is a perioperative modifiable risk factor.

Keywords: C2-7 angle; Geriatric nutritional risk index; Modifiable risk factor; Nutrition; Postlaminoplasty kyphotic deformity.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cervical Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Cervical Vertebrae / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kyphosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Kyphosis* / epidemiology
  • Kyphosis* / surgery
  • Laminoplasty* / adverse effects
  • Laminoplasty* / methods
  • Male
  • Malnutrition* / complications
  • Malnutrition* / epidemiology
  • Nutritional Status
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Spinal Cord Diseases* / surgery